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Citation Basics

Engineering - ASME Style

For many Engineering courses at Doane, you may be asked to use ASME style. Proper use of ASME requires in-text citation and a list of references at the end of your project. More details and examples how to cite of specific types of resources can be found on the ASME website.

In-Text Citation. Within the text, references should be cited numerically in the order of their appearance. The numbered citation should be enclosed in [brackets.]


According to Agrawal and Platzer [1], solar sails may be used as a novel way to propel spacecraft.

In the case of two citations within one sentence, the numbers should be separated by a comma [1,2]. In the case of more than two reference citations, the numbers should be separated by a dash [5-7].

List of References. References to original sources for cited material should be listed numerically together at the end of the paper in order of their appearance in the text.



[1] Agrawal, B. N., and Platzer, M. F., 2017, Standard Handbook for Aerospace Engineers, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill Education, New York, NY.

[2] Yuan, J., Gao, C., and Zhang, J., 2018, “Periodic Orbits of Solar Sail Equipped with Reflectance Control Device in Earth–Moon System,” Astrophysics and Space Science
363(2), p. 23.

Additional examples and information can be found in this ASME guide from the University of Missouri.

Book or chapter in a book

[Citation number] Author(s), year, Title of Book, Publisher, Location.

For chapters in a book, add chapter number at the end of the citation following the abbreviation, “Chap.”


[1] Saxby, G., 1996, Practical Holography, 2nd ed., Prentice Hall, New York, NY, Chap. 6.

Journal article

[Citation Number] Author(s), year, "Article Title," Journal Title, vol. no. (issue no.), pp.


[2] Dahl, G. and Suttrop, F., 1998, “Engine Control and Low-NOx Combustion for Hydrogen Fuelled Aircraft Gas Turbines,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 23(8), pp. 695-704.   

Web Page

[citation number] Author(s), year, “Title of Web Page.” Report Number (if applicable), from url.


[3] McBride, B.J. and Gordon, S., 1996, “Computer Program for Calculation of  Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions and Applications – II. Users Manual and Program Description,” NASA Ref Publ. No. 1311, from

[4] Danish Wind Energy Association, n.d., from

Conference Proceedings

[Citation number] Author(s), year, “Article Title,” Proceedings of the Name of Conference, date(s) of conference, identification number (if given), pp.


[5] Wions, T. T., and Mills, C. D., 2006, “Structural Dynamics in Parallel Manipulation,” Proceedings of the IDETC/CIE, New Orleans, LA, September 10-13, 2005, ASME Paper No. DETC2005-99532, pp. 777-798.

Technical Report

[Citation number] Author(s), year, “Report Title,” Report Number (if any) Publisher, Location.


[6] Leverant, G.R., 2000, “Turbine Rotor Material Design – Final Report,” DOT/FAA/AR-00/64, Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, D.C.


[Citation number] Inventor(s), year, “Patent Name/Title.” Country where patent is registered, Patent number.

For standards: Standard Issuing Body, year, “Standard Name,” Number.


[7] Seippel, C., 1949, “Gas Turbine Installation,” U.S. Patent 2461186. [1] IEEE, 1992, “Scalable Coherent Interface,” IEEE Std. 1596-1992.


Environmental Sciences - CSE Style

For courses in Environmental and Earth Sciences, you may be asked to use the Council of Science Editors (CSE) style. The University of Wisconsin Madison has created a quick guide to the CSE style.

The library also has a copy of the CSE handbook available on reserve for you to check out. Just ask for it at the service desk!